Category: Study Corner

March 24th, 2014 by admin
Anticoagulants and their actions are described briefly with examples….

  • Thrombin inhibitors – prevents conversion of prothrombin to thrombin thus preventing conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin eg. heparin
  • Low molecular weight heparin – prevents coagulation by blocking coagulation factor 10a eg. Dalteparin, Enoxiparin
  • Clotting Factor inhibitors – Inhibits hepatic synthesis of Vitamin K and related factors eg. Warfarin
  • Platelet inhibitors – Decrease platelet aggregation – eg. Clopidogrel
Nursing consideration – Note PTT for Thrombin inhibitors follow up while check PT and INR for Clotting Factor inhibitors follow up

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March 24th, 2014 by admin
We have noticed many antibiotics being given to patients, but have anyone enquired to which classes these antibiotics belongs and what is their specific action on pathogens. Lets study that….
ANTIBIOTICS

  • Aminoglycosides – decrease protein synthesis eg. Gentamycin
  • Cephalosporins – Bind to cell wall causing cell death eg. Cephalexin, Cefazolin
  • Fluroquinolones – Decrease DNA synthesis eg. Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin
  • Macrolides – Decrease protein synthesis eg. Azithromycin, Clarithromycin
  • Pencillin – Gind to cell wall causing cell death eg. Amoxycillin
  • Sulfonamide – decrease protein synthesis ed. Doxycycline
ANTINFECTIVES
  • Eg. Metronidazole – decrease DNA synthesis as well as protein synthesis,  bactericidal, trichomonacidal and amoebicidal

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March 24th, 2014 by admin

Simple but important points to be noted regarding Hemophilia while preparing for central exams…
  • Hemophilia is an x linked recessive genetic disorder
  • Affected in males, carried through females
  • Two types A and B, A is the classical Hemophilia due to deficiency of Factor 8 and B is Christmas disease due to the deficiency of Factor 9
  • Treatment – important – RICE ie Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation

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March 24th, 2014 by admin
Lets discuss about Glomerulonephritis and Nephrotic syndrome. Some striking points are being noted.

Glomerulonephritis

          – An immune-complex reaction resulting in an exudative process that narrows the capillaries of the glomeruli; is a complication of having an infection in prior 10–14 days. Organism is usually group A-hemolytic streptococcus
Nephrotic syndrome
           – Due to some disturbance increased permeability of glomerular capillary membranes causing excessive loss of proteins
Main difference in signs and symptoms of Glomerulonephtitis and Nephrotic syndrome
  • increased periorbital edema (both)
  • BP – increased in GN while decreased in NS
  • Edema – Peripheral edema in GN while anasarca in NS
  • Dysuria or oliguria – both
  • Dark colured urine – GN
  • Proteinuia – Massive in NS while moderate in GN
  • Anorexia, head ache, irritablity – both
  • Age group – 6-7 years for GN while 2-7 for NS

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March 24th, 2014 by admin
Let me share some facts i found interesting while going through the topics – infants and toddler. Hopes it could be useful

INFANT

Physical

  • 1-12Months
  • Weight triples by one year
  • head circumference = chest circumference
  • Turns from abd to back by 5 mths and from back to abd by 6 months
  • sits by 7 mths
  • pincer grasp – 9months
  • walks by holding 11 months

Psychosocial

  • oral stage
  • Egocentric
  • smiles by 2 months 
  • Laughs by 4 months
  • separation anxiety 4 -6 months
  • Stranger anxiety 6-8 months

Language

  • Babbles by 3 months
  • Sounds by 6 months
  • says one word by 10 months
  • says 3-5 words and understands 100 by 12 months

Play

  • Solitary play

TODDLER

  • 12 – 36 months

Physical

  • Weight quadraples by 2.5 year
  • anterior fontanelle – closed by 18 months

Psychosocial

  • anal stage
  • Negativistic

Language

  • Sentences by 2 year
Play
  • Parallel play

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March 24th, 2014 by admin
The reflexes in neonates are,
Babinski – When stimulating outer sole of foot from heel upward and across ball of foot toward large toe, large toe dorsiflexes and toes flare; persists 1yr

Moro (startle) – When startled (noise, jarring), arms extend and abduct with fingers forming a C while knees and hips flex slightly, arms return to chest in an embracing motion; persists 3–4mo

Gag – When stimulating posterior pharynx, choking occurs; persists for life

Blink – When stimulating posterior pharynx, choking occurs; persists for life

Corneal – When cornea is directly stimulated, eyelids close; persists for life

Crawl – When cornea is directly stimulated, eyelids close; persists for life

Grasp – When palm (palmar reflex) or sole of foot (plantar reflex) is stimulated at base of digits, fingers/toes flex in griplike motion; persists 3 and 8mo, respectively

Step (dance) – When supported under both arms with feet against firm surface, feet will make stepping movements; persists 3–4wk

Pupillary -When retina stimulated by light, pupil constricts; persists for life

Sucking – When object touches lips or is placed in mouth, sucking is attempted; persists through infancy

Rooting – When touching cheek or lips, head turns toward touch and mouth opens in attempt to suck; lasts 3–4mo, may persist 1yr

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March 24th, 2014 by admin
Lets revise the apgar score now…
A – Appearence – 0 – pale or blue, 1 – Pink torso and blue extremities, 2 – Pink torso and extremities

P – Pulse or Heart rate – 0 – absent, 1 – <100bpm, 2 – >100bpm

G – Grimacing or Reflex irritability – 0 – None, 1 – limited cry, 2 – active cry

A – Activity or muscle tone – 0 – absent, 1 – limited movt, 2 – active movement

R – Respiration – 0 – absent, 1 – slow, irregular, weak cry, 2 – strong loud cry

Rating score – 7-10 normal. 4-6 moderate depression, 0-3 aggressive resuscitation

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March 24th, 2014 by admin
Just gone through the neonatal  period. Found some words and sentences which is interesting, Lets see
Vernix Caseosa – Grayish-white, cheesy deposit covering skin

lanugo – white fine, downy hair on shoulders, back, and face

Acrocyanosis – cyanosis of hands and feets

Cutis murmorata – Motling of skin due to stress or overstimulation

Icterus Neonatorum – Neonatal Jaundice after 24hrs

Mongolian spots – Irregular areas of deep blue pigmentation usually in sacral or gluteal areas

café-au-lait spots – Light brown spots

Harlequine colour change – When lying on side lower half of body becomes pink and upper half becomes pale

Micro cephaly and hydrocephaly – Head circumference < 10% and >90% respectively

Caput succedanum – Diffuse edema between scalp soft tissue and suture line

Cephal Hematoma – Hematoma between periosteum and skull bone

Funnel Chest (Pectus Excavatum) – depressed sternum

Pigeons chest (Pectus Carinatum)

Supernumery nipples – widespaced nipples or extra nipples

Witches milk – milky discharge from nipples

Hypospadiasis and Epispadiasis – Urethra opens in ventral and dorsal surface respectively

Chordee – Ventral curvature of penis

Hydrocoele – fluid in scrotum

Pseudomenstruation – Blood tinged or mucoid vaginal discharge

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March 23rd, 2014 by admin
Some common problems that pregnant women are facing and their possible cause whether physical or hormonal is listed here with possible remedies…..Hopes its useful

Nausea or morning sickness – Incereased prodn of HCG

Physiological anemia – Increased RBC level by 30% causes decrease in Hct value

Palpitations or breathing difficulty – Pressure applied by uterus on diaphram

Supine hypotension – due to compression of superior venacava by enlarging uterus

Vericosis, Oedema of legs – Due to compression of blood vessels by enlarging uterus

Back pain – due to lordosis

Nasal congestion or epistaxis – increased estrogen levels

Heart burn and gastric reflux – due to delayed emptying of stomach and increased pressure of uterus

Constipation and flatulence – decreased peristalsis, increased pressure by uterus

Increased urinary frequency – Pressure on bladder by enlarging uterus

Chloasma, Linea Nigra, Striae gravidarum, Enlarged Mont gomery follicles – Pregnancy related integumentary changes

Leg cramps – Due to hypocalcemia and pressure of uterus on pelvic nerves

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March 23rd, 2014 by admin
Just gone through the variety period of womans (only women) life.
Seems interesting to be sharing. The major signs found through out the period are

Goodell’s sign – softening of cervix

Chadwicks sign – bluish discolouration in genital parts

Hegars sign – softening of lower uterine segment

Ballotment – bouncing motion of fetus towards fingers of examiner

Quickening – movt of fetus in 20 wks

Melasma, Chloasma – brownish skin over cheeks, nose, and forehead

Braxton hicks contractions – Mild, irregular uterine contractions

Linea nigra – pigmented line from symphysis pubis to top of fundus in midline

Striae gravidarum – Stretch marks over abdomen, thighs, breasts

Lightning – Fetal part descending to true pelvis

Dilation – Dilation of external os

Effacement – thinning of cervix

Hopes it does a recollection of ur memory…..

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October 25th, 2013 by admin
Here is the second post in reverse learning technique. Closely observe the terms and think of its relevance. Then you can go for the clue deep down.

Osmosis – Movement of solvent from a region of lower concentration to higher concentration
Diffusion – Movement of solute from a region of higher concentration to lower concentration
70ml/kg – Normal blood volume value in an adult
PCV in adult – 46% (males) and 42% (females)
7.2 microns – diameter of RBC
Early normoblast – Stage of erythropoesis in which Hb appears
Megaloblastic anemia – Deficiency of folic acid
HBb – 2 Beta chains only
WBC in infants – 6000 – 18000/mm3
Achalasia – Loss of lower esophageal sphincter function
2.5L – Daily Secretion of gastric juice
Bile salts Sodium Trichlorate and Sodium Bicholate
Spleen – Graveyard of RBC
IRV – 2 – 3L Volume of air that can be breathed in over and above tidal volume, by maximal inspiration effort
ERV – 1L Volume of air that can be breathed out over by maximum expiratory effort
RV – 1.2L Amount of air that remain in lung even after forceful expiration
FRC – RV + ERV 2.2L – Functional residual capacity
IC – 2.5 – 3.5L – IRV + vT Amount of air that can be breathed in by maximum effort after a normal expiration
VC – 4-5L – Amount of air that can be breathed out by maximum effort after a maximum inspiration
HB estimation – Wintrobes method, Sahls method, Haldens method, specific gravity method
Reynolds Number – Indicates whether blood flow is turbulent or not
180 L/day – Normal GFR
6.5 – Ph of urine
Sweat Glands – Merocrine and Apocrine
KCal/SqM/Hr – Unit of BMR
Endocrine – Glands, which secrete hormones which act at some distant sites after being carried by blood
Paracrine – Glands whose hormones act on adjacent cells
Addisons – Glucocorticoid deficiency 
Accouchers hand – carpal spasm
Erbs Sign – Increased rxcitability of motor nerves due to stimulation
Galvanometer – eg. ECG
BT Barrier – Blood testis barrier formed by sertoli cells
Vellous hair – soft hair found on infants body
300 – 400ml – urinary urgency is felt
18 – 20 gm/dl – Adult hb level
1.002 – 1.006 – Specific gravity of urine
PCT – Reabsorption of Sodium
70ml/kg – normal blood level in adult
Cushings – Hypothyroidism in adult
2mg/dl – Normal adult bilirubin level
Secretin – Secretion of bicarbonate and salts
HCL – produced by parietal or oxyntic cell

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October 24th, 2013 by admin
Here we present you with the first post in reverse learning technique To learn through this method you have to closely observe each terms in the picture provided and has to think in mind “what is the importance or significance of this word in anatomy?”. We are giving the clues down in this post. You people are free to add new information regarding these terms in comments section.

206 – Total no. of bones in the body
Femur – Longest bone in the body – length – 48cm
45 – 50cm – Length of Spinal Cord
Calcaneum – Largest bone of the foot
Tibia – Shin bone
Sciatic Nerve – Thickest nerve in the body
Greater Occipital nerve – Thickest cutaneous nerve
Sartorious – Longest muscle
Smallest muscle – Arrector Pili
Foramen Magnum – Largest foramen in Skull
Vagus – Largest Nerve
Skin – Largest organ of body
213 – Total No. of bones in infant
Periosteum – Fibrous vascular covering of bone
8 – Total no. of bones forming brain case
14 – Total no. of bones forming facial skelton
Vertex – Highest point in sagital suture
Bregma – The meeting point between coronal and sagital sutures
Lambda – The meeting point between sagital and lambdoid sutures
Fibula – Lateral bone of leg and bone commonly used for bone transplants
Arrector Pili – Smallest muscle in body
Atypical Ribs – The first two and last three pair of ribs 
Seismoid bone – Eg. Patella
Peritoneum – Largest serous membrane in body
1.5 Months – Posterior fontanelle ossifies
6 Months – Anterior Fontanelle ossifies
Gliding joint – Sterno clavicular joint
Pivot joint – Joint between atlas and odentoid process
Popliteus – Anti Locking muscle
Soleus – Peripheral Heart
First Gear – Soleus – First gear muscle of plantar flexion
Top Gear – Gastrocnemius – Top gear muscle of plantar flexion
Popliteal Artery – Commonly affected by aneurysm
Great Saphenus vein – Vein commonly used in CABG and commonly affected in varicosities
Cephalic vein – Found in Anatomical Snuff box
Olfactory nerve – Smallest cranial nerve

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September 1st, 2013 by admin
Lets study about the prime ministers of india,

1 Jawaharlal Nehru (1889–1964) MP for Phulpur – 15 August 1947 to 27 May 1964 [†] – 16 years, 286    days
   Gulzarilal Nanda (1898–1998) MP for Sabarkanth – 27 May 1964 – 9 June 1964 – 13 days

2 Lal Bahadur Shastri (1904–66) MP for Allahabad – 9 June 1964 – 11 January 1966 – 1 year, 216 days

   Gulzarilal Nanda (1898–1998) MP for Sabarkanth – 11 January 1966 – 24 January 1966 – 13 days

3 Indira Gandhi (1917–84) MP for Rae Bareli 24 January 1966 – 24 March 1977 – 11 years, 59 days

4 Morarji Desai (1896–1995) MP for Surat – 24 March 1977 – 28 July  1979 – 2 years, 126 days

5 Charan Singh (1902–87) MP for Baghpat – 28 July 1979 – 14 January 1980 – 170 days

  Indira Gandhi (1917–84) MP for Rae Bareli – 14 January 1980 – 31 October 1984 – 4 years, 291 day

6 Rajiv Gandhi (1944–91) MP for Amethi – 31 October 1984 – 2 December1989 – 5 years, 32 days

7 V. P. Singh (1931–2008) MP for Fatehpur 2 December 1989 – 10 November 1990 [NC] – 343 day

8 Chandra Shekhar (1927–2007) MP for Ballia – 10 November 1990 – 21 June 1991 – 223 day

9 P. V. Narasimha Rao (1921–2004) MP for Nandyal – 21 June 1991 – 16 May 1996 – 4 years, 330 days

10 Atal Bihari Vajpayee (born 1924) MP for Lucknow – 16 May 1996 – 1 June 1996 [RES] 16 days 1996

11 H. D. Deve Gowda (born 1933) MP (Rajya Sabha) for Karnataka – 1 June 1996 – 21 April 1997 324 days

12 I. K. Gujral (1919–2012) MP (Rajya Sabha) for Bihar – 21 April 1997 – 19 March 1998 332 days

13 Atal Bihari Vajpayee (born 1924) MP for Lucknow – 19 March 1998  – 22 May 2004 – 6 years, 64 days

14 Manmohan Singh (born 1932) MP (Rajya Sabha) for Assam 22 May 2004 – Incumbent – 9 years, 99 days

Longest term -Jawaharlal Nehru – 16 years 286 days, then  Indira Gandhi – 16 years and then comes Dr. Manmohan Singh 9 Years

Do you know a fact – Dr. Manmohan Singh has never been elected from a constituent assembly

Courtesy – Wikipedia

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August 31st, 2013 by admin

Another common question is revealed here, Lets study Read more of this article »

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August 30th, 2013 by admin
The major types of angina are,

Stable Angina or Exertional Angina

– occurs with exertion and relives with rest

Unstable Angina or Preinfarction Angina

– occurs with unpredictable degree of exertion or emotion and severity increases with time

Variant Angina or Prinzmetal’s or Vasospastic Angina

– results from coronary artery spasm, may occur at rest and ST elevation on ECG

Intractable angina

– incapacitating angina – irresponsive to interventions

Post infarction angina

– Cause is residual ischemia

Type of Pain in all angina pectoris is a substernal, crushing, squeezing pain which may radiate to shoulders, arms, jaws, neck or back and which usually lasts less than 5 minutes

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