Category: Study Corner

June 17th, 2015 by admin

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June 8th, 2015 by admin

Some vitamins and their deficiency diseases. Hopes this is very useful…

Source – Click Here

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April 16th, 2015 by admin

You might have heard about pin point pupils, pupils fixed and dilated, Pupils 2+ etc. This picture depicts clearly what all these pupilary signs indicate  Hopes this is useful.

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March 3rd, 2015 by admin
Here we are introducing key defense mechanisms with suitable examples to learn easily. Hopes this is useful.
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Denial – Refuses to accept a painful reality, pretending as if it doesn’t exist.

Example – A man who snorts cocaine daily,is fired for attendance problems yet insists he doesn’t have a problem.

Displacement – Directing anger toward someone or onto another, less threatening (safer) substitute.

Example – An older employee is publicly embarrassed by a younger boss at work and angrily cuts a driver off on the way home.

Identification – Taking on attributes and characteristics of someone admired.

Example – A young man joins the police academy to become a policeman like his father, whom he respects.

Intellectualization – Excessive focus on logic and reason to avoid the feelings associated with a situation

Example – An executive who has cancer, requests all studies and blood work, and discusses in detail with her doctor, as if she were speaking about someone else

Projection – Attributing to others feelings unacceptable to self

Example – A group therapy client strongly dislikes another member but claims that it is the member who “dislikes her.”

Reaction Formation – Expressing an opposite feeling from what is actually felt and is considered undesirable.

Example – John, who despises Jeremy, greets him warmly and offers him food and beverages and special attention.

Sublimation – Redirecting unacceptable feelings or drives into an acceptable channel.

Example – A mother of a child killed in a drive-by shooting becomes involved in legislative change for gun laws and gun violence.

Undoing – Ritualistically negating or undoing intolerable feelings/ thoughts.

Example – A man who has thoughts that his father will die must step on sidewalk cracks to prevent this and cannot miss a crack.

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October 9th, 2014 by admin
Lets check this awesome mnemonics describing cause, signs and management of DKA

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May 29th, 2014 by admin
This is an awesome mnemonic image of brain featuring various areas of brain and their cognitive functions. What is the use of this picture ?. This picture helps to identify the part of the brain affected by seeing the signs and symptoms shown by the patient affected with brain tumor, brain trauma etc. Hopes its useful to you

Areas of brain and related functions

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April 10th, 2014 by admin
Here we are giving you a nice mnemonic to remember the clotting factors.This is very easy
First of all let us remember what all are the clotting factors

1. Fibrinogen
2. Prothrombin
3. Tissue thromboplastin
4. Calcium Ions
5. Labile factor
7. Stable factor
8. Antihemophilic factor
9. Christmas factor
10 Stuart Prower factor
11. PTA
12. Hageman Factor
13. Fibrin stabilising factor

Now here comes the mnemonic by taking first letter of every factor in order ie “Freshers Party Tonight, Come Lets Sing And Call Seniors, Please Have Fun“…..Hopes it is useful

For remembering the factor causing Hemophilia A remember A as AIGHT ie 8 ie Factor 8

And for Hemophilia B which is also known as Christmas disease, Draw a Xmas tree
This makes u remember Factor 9 and X linked inheritance of the disease.

Courtesy : Medicowesome blog

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April 10th, 2014 by admin

Here we are sharing the national symbols of India. This can appear as a question for central govt exam.

National Emblem – Adaptation of Sarnath Lion capital of Ashoka. In the original, there are four lions, standing back to back, mounted on an abacus with a frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion separated by intervening wheels over a bell-shaped lotus.

National Flower – Lotus (Nelumbo Lucifera)

National Flag – Tricholour flag with Saffron on top, White in middle and Dark Green at bottom. Width to length ratio of the flag should be 2: 3

National bird – Indian Peacock (Pavo Cristatus)

National Animal – Tiger (Panthera Tigris)

National Calendar – Saka Era adopted on 22 March 1957. For official purposes – Gregorian Calendar

National Anthem – Jana Gana Mana written by Rabindranath Tagore. Adopted by constituent assembly on January 24, 1950. First sung on 27 December 1911 in Calcutta Session of INC

National Song – Vandemataram written in Sanskrit by Bankimchandra Chatterjee

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April 9th, 2014 by admin
This is a notable list of some major awards and honours given away during the period 2013-2014.
Might be useful while preparing for exams

Nobel prize for literature – Alice Munroe – Master of contemporary short stories

Nobel prize for Peace – Organisation for the prohibition of Chemical weapons

Sarswati Samman – Govind Mishra for Dhool Paudho Par

Templeton prize – Thomas Halik

Gandhi Peace prize – Chandi Prasad Bhatt

Vyas Samman – Vishwanath Tripathi 2014

Sachin Tendulkar and CNR Rao – Bharat Ratna

Honoured by house of commons, london – Karina kapoor

Mother Teresa International award for social justice – Sushmita Sen

Honoroury Canadaian Citizenship – Malala Yousafzal

Man booker prize – Eleanor Cantton 2014 – youngest to recieve Man Booker prize ever

Inaugral Allard Prize – Anna Hazare

Dada Saheb Falke academy Award – Yash Chopra

Dada saheb falke award – Pran

Grammy Life time achievment award – Pandit Ravi shankar

Humanitarian achievement award – Nelson Mandela

Sree Narayana Guru Peace award – Sashi Tharoor

Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna award – Ronjon Sodhi

UN public service award – Ooman Chandy

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March 31st, 2014 by admin
This is a mnemonic image featuring complete classification of antibiotics. You may be confused about what does a first generation, 2nd generation antibiotic, 3rd gen etc. means….This image will help to remove your confusion.

Now have a look…As we know the function of antibiotics is to stop the cell wall growth of pathogens,decrease protein synthesis and decrease DNA synthesis. In this picture the antibiotics are broadly classified into Beta lactam antibiotics and Other antibiotics. 
Beta lactam antibiotics are further classified into 5 groups…They are
  • Pencillins eg. Amoxicillin, Dicloxacillin etc
  • Cephalosporins – Here comes the 1st generation, 2nd generation, 3 rd generation and 4th generation antibiotics
  1. 1st generation antibiotics – eg. Cephalexin, Cephazolin etc
  2. 2nd generation antibiotics – eg. Cefuroxime etc
  3. 3rd generation antibiotics – eg. Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone etc
  4. 4th generation antibiotics – eg. Cefipime etc
  • Carbapenems – eg. Imipenem etc
  • Monobactame – eg. Aztreonam
  • Beta – Lactamase inhibitors – These are given as a broken branch because they are given in  different chemical combination ie not alone like others eg. Sulbactam combinations and Clavulanic acid combinations

The specific action of antibiotics on different pathogens are given in detail in the following post – click here

Hopes most of the doubts are over….

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March 31st, 2014 by admin
An awesome picture mnemonic to study distribution of cranial nerves….Hats off

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March 27th, 2014 by admin
Lets study about the bones, and sutures in brain

. Hopes its useful

The name of bones are frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital bones.

The sutures separating frontal bone and the parietal bone  is the coronal suture

The sutures separating two parietal bones is the sagittal suture

The suture separating the parietal bones from the occipital bones is the lambdoid sutures

The suture separating the frontal and parietal bone from the temporal bones is called the squamous suture

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March 25th, 2014 by admin
It is often confusing to study and remember various antihypertensives and their side effects. Lets sort it out….

1. ACE1 inhibitor or Angiotensin Agonists – Prevents conversion of Angiotensinogen to angiotensin 1, hence decrease aldosterone and increase excretion of sodium and water – Eg. all -PRILS viz Captopril, Enalapril etc.—–Side Effects – CAPTOPRIL Side Effect Mnemonic: Cough, Angioedema, Proteinuria, Taste changes, Orthostatic hypotension (or hypotension), Pregnancy problems , Rash, Increased renin & lower angiotensin II & Lytes (for the electro-lyte disturbance of hyperkalemia)

2. Calcium Channel Blockers – Increase realxation of vascular smooth muscles of coronary arteries and arterioles- eg. Amlodipine ie all -INES —— Side effects —-Bradycardia and Peripheral edema

3. ACE 2 inhibitors or Angiotensin 2 receptor antogonists  – Prevents conversion of Angiotensin 1 to Angiotensin 2 , hence decrease vasoconstriction and decrease prodn of aldosterone – eg. all -ARTANS viz. Losartan etc—–Side Effects –Nephrotoxic, Facial swelling, angioedema,

4. Beta blockers (Selective) – Blocks stimulation of beta 1 aderenergic receptors eg.  Metaprolol etc —-Side effects —Increase DM in Diabetic patients, bradycardia, pulmonary edema, impotence

5. Beta blockers (Non Selective) – Blocks stimulation of Both Beta 1and Beta 2 adrenergic receptors eg. Proponolol—-Side effect – Pulmonary edema, Bradycardia

6. Centrally acting antiadrenergics – Stimulate alpha 2 adrenergic receptors  to decrease sympthetic outflow eg. Methyl dopa —–Side effect–Dizziness, weakness, dry mouth, constipation; may cause impotence

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March 25th, 2014 by admin
Antifungals

  • Systemic – impairs fungal plasma membrane – eg. Flucanazole, Nystatin,, Clotrimazole etc.- SideEffects – Nephro,oto, hepatic toxicity, teratogenic, nausea,vomiting, rashes, fever
  • Topical – Disrupt fungal wall and metabolism – eg. Clotrimazole, Ketoconazole, Amphotericin B etc – Side Effect – Burning Irritation

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March 24th, 2014 by admin
Lets peep into various antiemetics and their action…..

  • Phenothiazines – decrease chemoreceptor trigger zone sensitivity – eg. Prochorperazine, Phenergan (Promethazine)- sideffect – sedation, drymouth, EPS, photosensitivity, confusion
  • 5HT3 antagonists – Blocks Seratonin at receptor sites in vagus nerve terminals as well as at chemoreceptor trigger zone – eg. Ondansetrone – Side effect -Head ache, constipation 
  • Anticholinergics – correct imbalance in acetyl choline and norepinephrine which will cause motion sickness – eg. Scopolamine – Side effect – urinary inconsistency, drowsiness, blurred vision
  • Non phenothiazines – Block chemoreceptor triggerzone, increase gastric motility and gastric emptying – eg. Metaclopramide – Sideeffect – Diarrhea, EPS, anxiety , drowsiness
Nursing considerations- Administer prior to chemotherapy or starting of motion sickness, monitor for signs of EPS and Neuroleptic malignant syndrome

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